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A statement by which people give assurance that they have spoken the truth or by which they obligate themselves to perform certain actions. God is usually invoked as guarantor of the oath, with the expectation that a broken or false oath will be punished by God. Swearing by God’s name was most solemn (Matt 26:63), but people also swore by holy things (Matt 5:36; Matt 23:16-22) and by raising their right hand (Rev 10:5-6). Covenant ceremonies demanded the swearing of oaths (Gen 26:28). Jesus, however, taught that one should not swear oaths (Matt 5:34; Jas 5:12).